One of the sectors which fosters national development is education by ensuring the development of a functional human resource. The institution of strong educational structures leads to a society populated by trade schools near me enlightened people, who can cause positive economic progress and social transformation. A Positive social transformation and its associated economic growth are achieved as the people apply the skills they learned while they were in school. The acquisition of these skills is facilitated by one individual we all ‘teacher’. For this reason, nations seeking economic and social developments need not ignore teachers and their role in national development.
Esteem Education is the much discussed and examined subject in the plenty of training in India. Obviously seo company near me the facts confirm that the principle reason for any training will run with Value introduction. More fixation on Value training has been given at the essential and auxiliary level of school instruction than in advanced education in India. Qualities could be adequately bestowed to the youthful personalities instead of to the developed ones. It might be the critical explanation behind this prime significance given at the school level. There are such a significant number of modules structured with the assistance of organizations like NCERT and others for adequately giving the esteem instruction to the school understudies. In this unique circumstance, numerous creative instructive practices are being distinguished by the specialists. Great number of trials and studies are being directed in the ongoing days on search marketing agencies the adequacy of showing esteem training at school level. A few schools have extremely imaginative and radical course structures to confer the qualities.
Viable showing rehearses in giving worth instruction ranges from narrating, displays, dramas, one act play and gathering exchanges to different organizations. New strategies have been developed by educationists to make a compelling learning circle. The utilization of electronic contraptions additionally gains significance in the instructing learning practices of significant worth training. In any case, at the advanced education level, because of different reasons, the significance given to esteem instruction isn’t as much as it is given at the school level. The educational programs and the training techniques additionally could be subjected to investigation. The facts confirm that schools are intended for a sort of seo consultant specialization in some field of instruction. However, in the Indian social setting, the young require heading and guiding at this stage. They have been presented to different difficulties at this phase which requests the mediation of educationists for his/her improvement. His/her character fabricating additionally reinforces at this point. Understudies’ discernment on different life elements and occasions are getting formed at this stage. In general they develop their own logic of life. Their affectability and information are getting heading at this stage. Consequently, a powerful esteem introduction winds up inescapable to the understudies of universities. Remembering this necessity, States like Tamilnadu presented a necessary paper/seminar on esteem training to college understudies of all universities in the State under the decision based credit framework. In spite of the seo consultant fact that this sort of exertion is made with the well meaning plan of conferring esteems to the young, numerous restrictions in drawing out the normal result could be distinguished.
The issue for the most part starts with the meaning of qualities. Characterizing the term ‘esteem’ represents a test to all researchers. The term esteem is stacked with assortments of significance. Each importance mirrors its own philosophical position. By and large the term esteem is immediately connected with religious qualities. It is accepted by numerous Indians that qualities are only the religious and otherworldly controlling standards of life. Henceforth, it is assumed that the way is as of now been laid for the existence venture. In any case, with regards to innovation and innovation there rises a crucial inquiry of whether esteem instruction is required at all in a cutting edge state. There are the individuals who contend that advanced life depends on science and innovation, and both are esteem impartial. They see that the qualities are terror held out by individuals living before, stuck to obsolete religious rules that have no local seo agency significance to the 21st century. Now, there is additionally another gathering of innovator who proliferate the need of significant worth instruction at learning focuses with the end goal to safe monitor the vote based state and its qualities. The qualities they wish to develop are present day common qualities, for example, trustworthiness, regard to other, correspondence, collectivity, majority rules system, regarding the human rights, sharing equivalent space in people in general circle et cetera. These qualities are considered as the results of edification period. Subsequently, four positions could be landed at based on the above comprehension. The are:
1. There are religious qualities which are especially fundamental for each one and must be incorporated into the educational modules.
2. The religious qualities ought not discover search marketing consultant put in the instructive framework. They may work at the private circle.
3. There are non-religious mainstream esteems and they should discover space in the instruction.
4. There is no requirement for showing esteem training in the scholastics since they can’t be developed through formal learning and such esteem development will make the individual one-sided.
In outcome to these positions, following inquiries stir.
1. Whether esteem training should discover put in the instructive framework?
2. If it is required, at that point what kind of qualities ought to be given inclination in the educational programs?
3. What is the significance to be given to the religious qualities which are basically created based on sacred texts?
4. Can present day esteems alone are sufficiently adequate or is there any plausibility of mixing the estimations of advancement with religious qualities?
5. If religious qualities are to be given significance in the educational programs, which religion will discover seo partner prime place? On the off chance that there are conflicting proliferation on a solitary uprightness by two religions, at that point how are they to be taken care of?
6. Similarly religions vary on the practices too. Appropriate from eating designs, dress mode, marriage frameworks, war strategies, executing, disciplines to different perspectives, religions contrast on their viewpoint. In this circumstance, what kind of discernments should be educated?
Other than these inquiries, another billion dollar question would be raised on the philosophy of adequately conferring those qualities. On the other hand as it is made reference to organic seo consultant before, the school instruction can incorporate this training effectively on the grounds that the framework itself is profitable for it to oblige. In any case, at the school level, the framework thinks that its extremely hard to work out. So this investigation could break down the hypothetical issues identifying with the distinguishing proof of qualities to be incorporated into the educational programs at the one side and the issue of successful planning of the educational programs and bestowing those qualities on the opposite side.
The need for granting esteems to the understudies of the sum total of what levels has been felt by everybody. The present reality is confronting exceptional socio-political and financial difficulties. Issues of life are winding up progressively exceptional and complex. Customary qualities are decentered. ‘A situation of hardship plagues all nations and broken homes have turned out to be normal. A voracious yearn for cash and power, drives the greater part of individuals to strain and nonappearance of genuine feelings of serenity and a wide range of physical and mental sicknesses have turned out to be basic place” 1. In the present day setting of regular and Houston SEO frequently fierce social changes, we need to take a gander at the issue of anxiety of the adolescent, their dissatisfaction conceived out of worthlessness of their scan for significance of life and the reason for which they are living, frequently prompting fiendishness and devilishness. This requires another way to deal with, and another vision of training. It is clearly felt that the present instructive framework advances rodent race and keep the understudy network it might be said of weakness. Instructive organizations have turned into the weight cookers building weights in the psyches of youth. Additionally a space sided instructive example which demands instrumental and specialized discernment for the fruitful life as far as picking up cash and power has attacked the instructive arrangement of India. The individual who is considered to be unfit for this survival race winds up precluded and ineligible to live in this market economy based life. The spate of industrialization and monetary development in created countries has achieved a distinguishable change in this situation. What’s more, creating nations including India are feeling the expansive influences of this improvement. Qualities prior considered basic by the sum total of what social orders have been dissolved and have offered approach to unscrupulous practices the world over. Where genuineness and uprightness were cherished and acknowledged, eagerness, debasement and red tapism have come in, Houston SEO Agency acquiring their wake, dishonest reactions which have invaded all kinds of different backgrounds and are foiling endeavors of a couple of illuminated people to advance esteem based society.2 Hence, usage of very much organized training is the main arrangement accessible with all states. With developing troublesome powers, tight parochialism, nonconformist inclinations from one viewpoint and extensive fall in good, social, moral and national qualities both in close to home and open life on the other, the requirement for advancing compelling projects of significant worth introduction in instruction has accepted incredible direness. Advancement of human qualities through instruction is presently routinely observed as an errand of national significance. Esteem training however assumes to be the an integral part of the customary instruction, because of the market impacts, it couldn’t be so. Subsequently, it has turned into an unavoidable need to incorporate a restrictive educational modules for Houston SEO Consultant esteem instruction at all levels.
Presently the following inquiry would be about the idea of significant worth training. What kind of qualities ought to be given inclination in the educational modules is the prime issue in the presentation of significant worth training. This issue surfaces since we can discover assortments of qualities endorsed based on different sacred texts and speculations. In some cases they are conflicting to one another. This issue has been altogether talked about before. In any case, the answer for the issue of the idea of significant worth training is basically subject to the social conditions that win in the state. There need not be a foreign made esteem instructive example to be endorsed in India. The consuming social issues would request the required esteem training. In spite of the fact that India is viewed as Houston SEO Company the place where there is godlikeness and shrewdness, the advanced esteem framework tosses difficulties to the old esteem design. Ideal from the Gurkula example to the varna ashrama values, all qualities are under investigation by present day rodent
Teachers are the major factor that drives students’ achievements in learning. The performance of teachers generally determines, not only, the quality of education, but the general performance of the students they quickbooks classes near me train. The teachers themselves therefore ought to get the best of education, so they can in turn help train students in the best of ways. It is known, that the quality of teachers and quality teaching are some of the most important factors that shape the learning and social and academic growth of students. Quality training will ensure, to a large extent, teachers are of very high quality, so as to be able to properly manage classrooms and facilitate learning. That is why teacher quality is still a matter of concern, even, in countries where students consistently obtain high scores in international exams, such as Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In such countries, teacher education of prime importance cell phone repair certification because of the potential it has to cause positive students’ achievements.
The structure of teacher education keeps changing in almost all countries in response to the quest of producing teachers who understand the current needs of students or just the demand for teachers. The changes are attempts to ensure that quality teachers are produced and sometimes just to ensure that classrooms are not free of teachers. In the U.S.A, how to promote high quality teachers has been an issue of contention and, for the past decade or so, has been motivated, basically, through the methods prescribed by the No Child Left Behind Act (Accomplished California Teachers, 2015). Even in Japan and other Eastern countries where there are more teachers than needed, and structures have been instituted to ensure high quality teachers are produced and employed, issues relating to the teacher and teaching quality are still of concern (Ogawa technical schools near me , Fujii & Ikuo, 2013). Teacher education is therefore no joke anywhere. This article is in two parts. It first discusses Ghana’s teacher education system and in the second part looks at some determinants of quality teaching.
2.0 TEACHER EDUCATION
Ghana has been making deliberate attempts to produce quality teachers for her basic school classrooms. As Benneh (2006) indicated, Ghana’s aim of teacher education is to provide a complete teacher education program through the provision of initial teacher training and in-service training programs, that will produce competent teachers, who will help improve the effectiveness of the teaching and learning sap hana training that goes on in schools. The Initial teacher education program for Ghana’s basic school teachers was offered in Colleges of Education (CoE) only, until quite recently when, University of Education, University of Cape Coast, Central University College and other tertiary institutions joined in. The most striking difference between the programs offered by the other tertiary institution is that while the Universities teach, examine and award certificates to their students, the Colleges of Education offer tuition while the University of Cape Coast, through the Institute of Education, examines and award certificates. The training sap hana security training programs offered by these institutions are attempts at providing many qualified teachers to teach in the schools. The National Accreditation Board accredits teacher training programs in order to ensure quality.
The National Accreditation Board accredits teacher education programs based on the structure and content of the courses proposed by the institution. Hence, the courses run by various institutions differ in content and structure. For example, the course content for the Institute of Education, University of Cape Coast is slightly different from the course structure and content of the Center for Continue Education, University of Cape Coast and none of these two programs matches that of the CoEs, python certification though they all award Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) after three years of training. The DBE and the Four-year Untrained Teacher’s Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programs run by the CoEs are only similar, but not the same. The same can be said of the Two-year Post-Diploma in Basic Education, Four-year Bachelor’s degree programs run by the University of Cape Coast, the University of Education, Winneba and the other Universities and University Colleges. In effect even though, same products attract same clients, the preparation of the products are done in different ways.
It is through these many programs that teachers are prepared for the basic schools – from nursery to senior high schools. Alternative pathways, or programs through which teachers are prepared are seen to be good in vocational schools near me situations where there are shortages of teachers and more teachers ought to be trained within a very short time. A typical example is the UTDBE program, mentioned above, which design to equip non-professional teachers with professional skills. But this attempt to produce more teachers, because of shortage of teachers, has the tendency of comprising quality.
As noted by Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci and Stone (2010) the factors that contribute to the problems of teacher education and teacher medical records and health information technicians retention are varied and complex, but one factor that teacher educators are concerned about is the alternative pathways through which teacher education occur. The prime aim of many of the pathways is to fast track teachers into the teaching profession. This short-changed the necessary teacher preparation that prospective teachers need before becoming classroom teachers. Those who favor alternative routes, like Teach for America (TFA), according to Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci and Stone (2010) have defended their alternative pathways by saying that even though the students are sap fico certification engaged in a short-period of pre-service training, the students are academically brilliant and so have the capacity to learn a lot in a short period. Others argue that in subjects like English, Science and mathematics where there are usually shortages of teachers, there must be a deliberate opening up of alternative pathways to good candidates who had done English, Mathematics and Science courses at the undergraduate level. None of these arguments in support of alternative pathways, hold for the alternative teacher education programs in Ghana, where the academically brilliant students shun teaching due to reasons I shall come to.
When the target is just to fill vacant seo company classrooms, issues of quality teacher preparation is relegated to the background, somehow. Right at the selection stage, the alternative pathways ease the requirement for gaining entry into teacher education programs. When, for example, the second batch of UTDBE students were admitted, I can say with confidence that entry requirements into the CoEs were not adhered to. What was emphasized was that, the applicant must be a non-professional basic school teacher who has been engaged by the Ghana Education Service, and keyword tool dominatorthat the applicant holds a certificate above Basic Education Certificate Examination. The grades obtained did not matter. If this pathway had not been created, the CoEs would not have trained students who initially did not qualify to enroll in the regular DBE program. However, it leaves in its trail the debilitating effect compromised quality.
Even with regular DBE programs, I have realized, just recently I must say, that CoEs in, particular, are not attracting the candidates with very high grades. This as I have learnt now has a huge influence on both teacher bmw houston quality and teacher effectiveness. The fact is, teacher education programs in Ghana are not regarded as prestigious programs and so applicants with high grades do not opt for education programs. And so the majority of applicants who apply for teacher education programs have, relatively, lower grades. When the entry requirement for CoEs’ DBE program for 2016/2017 academic year was published, I noticed the minimum entry grades had been dropped from C6 to D8 for West African Senior Secondary School Examination jaguar dealership houston candidates. This drop in standard could only be attributed to CoEs’ attempt to attract more applicants. The universities too, lower their cut off point for education programs so as attract more candidates. The universities as alleged by Levine (2006) see their teacher education programs, so to say, as cash cows. Their desire to make money, force them to lower admission standards, like the CoEs have done, in order to increase their enrollments. The fact that, admission standards are internationally lowered in order to achieve a goal of increasing numbers. This weak recruitment practice or lowering of standards introduce a serious challenge to teacher education.
The Japanese have been able to make audi houston teacher education and teaching prestigious and therefor attract students with high grades. One may argue that in Japan, the supply of teachers far exceeds the demand and so authorities are not under any pressure to hire teachers. Their system won’t suffer if they do all they can to select higher grade student into teacher education programs. To them, the issues relating to the selection of teachers are more important that the issues relating to recruitment. However, in western and African countries the issues relating to recruitment are prime. It is so because the demand for teachers far outweighs that of supply. Western scratch and dent appliances and African countries have difficulties recruiting teachers because teachers and the teaching profession is not held in high esteem. Teacher education programs therefore do not attract students who have very good grades. It is worth noting that, it is not the recruiting procedure only that determines whether or not teacher education will be prestigious, however recruiting candidates with high grades, ensures that after training, teachers will exhibit the two characteristics essential to effective teaching – quality and effectiveness. Teacher education can be effective if the teaching profession is held in high esteem and therefore able to attract the best of applicants. Otherwise, irrespective of incentives put into place to attract applicants and irrespective of the measures that will be put in place to strengthen teacher education, teacher education programs cannot fully achieve its scratch and dent appliances near me purpose.
In order to strengthen teacher preparation, there is the need for teacher preparation programs to provide good training during the initial teacher training stage, and provide and sustain support during the first few years after the teachers have been employed. That is why Lumpe (2007) supports the idea that pre-service teacher education programs should ensure teachers have gained a good understanding of effective teaching strategies. Methodology classes therefore should center on effective teaching strategies. Irrespective of the pathway the training program takes, the program must be structured such that trainees gain knowledge about pedagogy, besides the knowledge of subject matter. They should also get enough exposure to practical classroom whirlpool cabrio experience like the on-campus and off-campus teaching practice. Whether or not there is the need to fill vacancies in the classroom due to the high teacher attrition, many countries face, teacher preparation programs should aim at producing quality and effective teacher and not just filling vacancies.
3.0 DETERMINANTS OF TEACHER QUALITY
Teacher quality has such enormous influence on students’ learning. Anyone who has been in the teaching business will agree that teacher quality is central to education reform efforts. Priagula, Agam & Solmon (2007) described teacher quality as an important in-school factor that impact significantly on students’ learning. Quality teachers have positive impact on the success of students. Where the students have quality and effective teachers the students make learning gains while those with ineffective teachers show declines. With respect to the classroom teacher, teacher quality movie jackets is a continuous process of doing self-assessment so as to have professional development and a self-renewal, in order to enhance teaching. For the teacher educator, an effective or quality teacher is one who has a good subject-matter and pedagogy knowledge, which the he/she can build upon.
Outstanding teachers possess and exhibit many exemplary qualities. They have the skills, subject matter, and pedagogy to reach every child. They help equip their students with the knowledge and breadth of awareness to make sound and independent judgments. Three determinants of teacher quality will be considered here. They are; pedagogical knowledge, subject-matter content knowledge and experience.
3.1 PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
Trainees of every profession receive some sort of education that will give them insight into and prepare them for the task ahead. That of the teacher is called Pedagogical Content Knowledge or Pedagogical Knowledge. Pedagogical Content Knowledge can be described as, knowledge the teachers use in organizing classrooms, delivering the content the students must show mastery over and for managing the students entrusted into their care. Generally speaking, pedagogical knowledge is knowledge wedding sherwani the teacher uses to facilitate students’ learning. Pedagogical Content Knowledge is in two major forms – teachers’ knowledge of the students’ pre-conceptions and teachers’ knowledge of teaching methodologies. Students come to class with a host of pre-conceptions relating to the things they are learning. The pre-conceptions may or may not be consistent with the actual subject-matter that is delivered. Teachers must have a good idea of both kinds of preconception, in order to help students, replace the inconsistent pre-conceptions or build upon the consistent pre-conceptions to bring about meaningful learning. Teachers must have a repertoire of teaching methodologies for facilitating students’ learning. When the methodologies are applied wrongly little or no learning occurs in students. In effect when either of the two is weak, the teacher becomes a bad one because that teacher will not be able to execute his/her responsibility in the vocation he/she has chosen. Due to this during teacher preparation, Pedagogical Content Knowledge is emphasized.
Teachers gain Pedagogical Content Knowledge from various sources. Friedrichsen, Abell, Pareja, Brown, Lankford and Volkmann black men in suits (2009) distinguished three potential sources of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. They listed the sources as professional development programs, teaching experiences and lastly teachers’ own learning experiences. During their days as students in teacher education programs, teachers are assisted in variety ways to gain Pedagogical Content Knowledge. For examples, during practice, they learn how to put the pedagogical skills they learnt. Teacher education programs and other professional development programs create avenues for teachers to gain pedagogical content knowledge through workshops, lectures, working together with colleagues, and in teaching practice. Then their experiences in their classrooms as they teach students lead them to gain insight into which methodologies work under best under specific situations. That last source is usually ignored. It indicates that the professional knowledge of the teacher begins to develop long before the teacher becomes a candidate entering into teacher education. This means, the way teachers teach influences to a large extent the prospective teachers’ professional knowledge and beliefs. This type of learning is, generally, overlooked by teachers at all levels because unintentional and informal, it is.